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The Kolyma water-balance station, Hydrograph hydrological model, runoff, permafrost zone, active layer, landscape, water balance

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«Earth`s Cryosphere», 2020, Vol. XXIV, № 1, p. 37-48

Modelling of runoff formation processes at small mountain watersheds in the permafrost zone (by the data of the Kolyma water balance station)

О.М. Makarieva1,2, L.S. Lebedeva1, T.A. Vinogradova2

1 Melnikov Permafrost Institute, SB RAS, 36, Merzlotnaya str., Yakutsk, 677010, Russia; omakarieva@gmail.com
2 St. Petersburg State University, Institute of Earth Sciences, 7-9, Universitetskaya nab., St. Petersburg, 199034, Russia

Based on analysis of the observation data on the active layer characteris-tics, the distribution of the snow cover, the streamflow and the evaporation processes in the small watersheds of the Kolyma water-balance station, five main types of land-scapes representative of the mountainous areas of the North-East of Russia were iden-tified: rocky talus at surface watersheds; mountain tundra and Siberian dwarf pine brushwood at south-facing slopes; mossy and lichenous sparse forests at north-facing slopes; larch forest in the river valleys; larch forest in the river talik zone. For each type of the landscape, the vegetation-soil cover was developed, and the parameters of the Hydrograph deterministic hydrological model were estimated. Modelling of the water balance elements and of the runoff hydrographs was carried out for the Kontaktovy Creek basin (Nizhny gauge, area 21.3 km2) and three microwatersheds representing the main types of landscapes (the Morozova, Severny and Yuzhny Creeks). Calculations were carried out with the daily time interval for the period of 1951–1997. Based on comparison with the observational data, the simulation results were assessed as satisfactory. The novelty of the research consists in the proposed approach of a priori estimation of the hydrological model without using calibration methods. Such an approach is promising for assessing future changes in runoff formation processes and the evolution of frozen ground under conditions of climate change.

The Kolyma water-balance station, Hydrograph hydrological model, runoff, permafrost zone, active layer, landscape, water balance

DOI: 10.21782/EC2541-9994-2020-1(37-48)

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