An analysis is made of the organization of settlement of the eastern regions of Russia in the early period of their development: in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. Historical experience is treated as the result of the State’s transformation activity. Characteristics of the resettlement movement are shown, which was based on the allocation of land to peasants. Resettlement to outlying district was necessary; therefore, unauthorized settlers were also welcomed, and they also received plots of land. Results of peasant resettlements to the south of the Far East during the Stolypin agrarian reforms, and also the causes and magnitude of emigration to Australia through the eastern gates” of Russia are analyzed. Such emigration was much cheaper than in the westward direction, because the Chinese border could be reached using State assistance with resettlement to the east. It was after the Civil War that migration from Russia became largest. In addition to settlers from the European part of Russia, migrants from neighboring countries (China and Korea) were actively involved in the colonization of the Far Eastern lands. Several waves of such resettlements were recorded. The structure of immigration flows from neighboring countries and the areas of their settlement are considered. It is shown that an increase in State assistance to cover expenditures connected with resettlement in the early 20th century contributed to a rapid population growth. The region had the highest level of population growth in the country. At present, the preservation of the demographic potential and its further increase are becoming a challenging problem of regional policy.Keywords: Far East, settlement of territory, migration, cross-border migrations, emigration.