Академическое издательство «Гео»

Keywords: high-altitude belt, ecofloristic zones, national parks, biological corridors, flora, fauna.



GEOGRAPHY AND NATURAL RESOURCES, 2019, № 2, p. 167-175

Protected areas and biodiversity of the Kingdom of Bhutan

Yu.V. Efremov

Institute of Geography, Geology and Service, Kuban State University,
350040, Krasnodar, ul. Stavropol’skaya, 149, Russia, efremov_kubsu@mail.ru

The unique landscape features of the Kingdom of Bhutan, associated with contrasting topography, abrupt height differences at short distances and with large amounts of monsoon precipitation in the summer time, are considered. The main feature in the landscapes of this region is determined: exceptional diversity of vegetation cover and animals. An analysis is made of the subtropical, temperate and alpine landscape-ecofloristic zones. In each of the zones, subtropical, temperate, subarctic (alpine type) and nival altitudinal belts are identified. A brief description of high-altitude belts and types of vegetation and animals is given. It is established that the largest space here is occupied by subtropical, broadleaved and coniferous forests (80.9 %) which extend from the foot of the mountains to almost 3500 m above the sea level. The zones and belts are characterized by exceptional biodiversity with a large number of endemic fauna and flora. The system of protected areas of Bhutan is described, and a brief account of its national parks, nature reserves and biological corridors is given. Attention is focused on the rational and careful attitude of the royal government toward nature, implying the establishment of national parks and reserves which occupy half of the entire area of the State.

Keywords: high-altitude belt, ecofloristic zones, national parks, biological corridors, flora, fauna.

DOI: 10.21782/GiPR0206-1619-2019-2(167-175)

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