Академическое издательство «Гео»

Key words: nuclear explosions, global fallouts, frozen landscapes, sols, migration.



GEOGRAPHY AND NATURAL RESOURCES, 2019, № 2, p. 112-123

Geographical features of pollution of the territory of Yakutia with cesium-137

P.I. Sobakin, A.P. Chevychelov, Ya.R. Gerasimov

Institute for Biological Problems of Cryolithozone SB RAS,
677980, Yakutsk, Lenin Ave, 41, Russia, radioecology@yandex.ru, chev.soil@list.ru, yrger@mail.ru

Modern levels of global 137Cs deposition in permafrost soils of tundra and taiga zones of Yakutia are studied. It is shown that the reserves of 137Cs in the soils of Yakutia, depending on the landscape and climatic features of the territory, vary in a significant range. The greatest number of 137Cs is contained in soils of mountain areas (Aldan highlands and Chr. Ulahan-Clean), located in the zone with the maximum average annual rainfall, and the lowest — in the soils of the tundra zone. It is recorded that the average density of soil pollution 137Cs on the surveyed flat parts of the territory of Yakutia is now generally decreased by three to four times compared with the data of aerogamma-spectral surveys conducted 1968–1974 on the territory of the Yakut ASSR due to its radioactive decay, burial, removal from surface waters and accumulation of vegetation. It is shown that in the surveyed areas of the plains and mountains of Yakutia, the global deposition of 137Cs in soils is on average 2–4 times less than in the soils of the Urals, Western and southern Siberia and other territories of Russia. The correlation between the density of soil pollution 137Cs and the amount of atmospheric precipitation was revealed. The main regularities of migration and redistribution of 137Cs in different types of soils conjugated by runoff of areas of permafrost landscapes are established. In the harsh climatic conditions of Yakutia in permafrost soils vertical and lateral migration 137Cs weaker than in the soils of the European part of Russia contaminated with radioactive cesium after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant.

Key words: nuclear explosions, global fallouts, frozen landscapes, sols, migration.

DOI: 10.21782/GiPR0206-1619-2019-2(112-123)

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