Академическое издательство «Гео»

Keywords: Suntar-Khayata high-mountain station, Hydrograph hydrological model, permafrost, elevation-dependence of precipitation, water balance, runoff formation complex.



GEOGRAPHY AND NATURAL RESOURCES, 2019, № 1, p. 178-186

Modeling runoff formation pro-
cesses in the high-mountain permafrost zone of Eastern Siberia (A case study of Suntar-Khayata
Range)

O.M. Makarieva*, **, N.V. Nesterova**, ***, L.S. Lebedeva*, Т.А. Vinogradova**, ****

*Melnikov Permafrost Institute, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
677010, Yakutsk, ul. Merzlotnaya, 36, Russia, omakarieva@gmail.com, lyudmilaslebedeva@gmail.com
**St. Petersburg State University, 199034, St. Petersburg, Universitetskaya nab., 7/9, Russia,
omakarieva@gmail.com, nnesterova1994@gmail.com, vinograd1950@mail.ru
***State Hydrological Institute, 199004, St. Petersburg, Tretya liniya, 23, Russia,
nnesterova1994@gmail.com
****Gidrotehproyekt Ltd., 199178, St. Petersburg, Chetyrnadtsataya liniya Vasilievskogo ostrova,
d. 97, lit. A, pom. 3-N, Russia, vinograd1950@mail.ru

Methods have been developed for modeling hydrological processes for various mountain landscapes of the permafrost zone having regard to the influence of variable states and water-thermal regime of the active layer on the runoff formation processes which are applicable in conditions of an extreme insufficiency of observational data. The catchment of the Suntar river (7680 km2, elevation range 830–2794 m, continuous permafrost zone, upper reaches of the Indigirka river basin) was used as the object for study. For modeling purposes, the Suntar River basin was schematized into four runoff formation landscapes: the goletz complex, the belt of mountain tundra, taiga, swampy woodlands and meadow bogs. Based on observational data from the Suntar-Khayata high-mountain station within the program of the International Geophysical Year (1957–1959), we developed the parameters in terms of Hydrograph hydrological model describing the runoff formation processes in the high-mountain goletz zone (elevation >1900 m). Results from modeling the characteristics of snow cover, temperature of ground at different depths in the goletz zone and streamflow hydrograph in the outlet section of the Suntar river showed a good agreement with observational data. Model calculations made it possible to estimate the mеan long-term values of the water balance elements for different landscapes and their contribution to runoff formation as well as to suggest updates of the reference values of mеan long-term precipitation and evaporation for the study area. It is shown that the Hydrograph model is applicable for modeling the thermal state of soils and runoff formation processes on scales from a single soil column to an average-scale river basin in the mountain permafrost zone where information is insufficient.

Keywords: Suntar-Khayata high-mountain station, Hydrograph hydrological model, permafrost, elevation-dependence of precipitation, water balance, runoff formation complex.

DOI: 10.21782/GiPR0206-1619-2019-1(178-186)

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