This paper outlines the principles of using GIS technologies in conjunction with methods from natural sciences in geoarchaeological research. We examine the model of the development of geoinformatics demonstrating the technological transition from «data» through «information» to new «knowledge». The relevance and importance of these categories are highlighted for different stages of geoarchaeological analysis. It is determined that the technology for generation of archaeological and geographical databases providing a means of dealing with two problems: cataloging of archaeological sites and retrospective modeling of the historical process with the archaeological landscape, is the key element of the suggested approaches in accumulation and processing of information on artifacts. Central to the conceptual model of GIS-based mapping of archaeological sites used in this study is the technology of mathematical-cartographic mapping based on the synthesis of mathematical, information, geoinformation, cartographic and other models. Special attention in this cognitive process is paid to the fundamentally new capabilities of the geoarchaeological analysis and archaeological reconstructions whose potential has not yet been revealed. It is emphasized that the cartographic and geoinformation-based methods are the key tools in the spatiotemporal analysis. Experience and results of experiments as obtained in the course of investigations showed considerable prospects for a further development of archaeological geoinformatics and cartography. It is established that algorithmization of the procedures of geoarchaeological data collection and GIS model construction is an integral part of the spatial analysis of geoarchaeological sites. By testing in practice some of the technological methods, it was possible to make a comprehensive geoarchaeological analysis of the study territory during the era of the Great Silk Road as well as realizing in full measure one of the classes of cartographic models and developing on their basis a series of thematic maps.Keywords: GIS technology, geoarchaeological analysis, archaeological-geographical data, databases, mathematical-cartographic modeling, geoinformation mapping.