Results from investigating atmospheric aerosols in Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia) 2005–2014 are presented. It is found that the largest sources of suspended particles are represented by fuel combustion and the concomitant exhaust gases, thermal power generation, industrial facilities and mineral dust transport; the main components of aerosol particles are SO2–4, NO–3, Cl–, NH+4, Ca2+, and Na+. It is determined that in the wintertime, as a result of an increase in fuel consumption, calm weather and orographic characteristics of topography which contribute to accumulation of contaminants in the urban atmosphere, the average sum of ions increases to 43.9–114.6 μg/m3 against 7.44–18.48 μg/m3 during a warm season. Interannual differences in aerosol composition were noted; the total ion content averaged 43.9 μg/m3 during December 2011, 114.6 μg/m3 during December 2012, 68.7 μg/m3 during December 2013, and 64.7 μg/m3 during December 2014. It was found that the concentration of the sum of ions in the aerosol during the winter period is by a factor of 6 higher than during the summer. The highest exceedance of the concentrations was observed for the alkaline earth ions Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ (by a factor of more than 20) forming part of the ash components. There is a difference in the chemical composition of the aerosol sampled in the center of the city and on its outskirts. It is established that the aerosol composition and concentration in Ulaanbaatar during the winter period are comparable the aerosol composition in the industrial cities of China.Keywords: water-soluble components, seasonal and interannual variations, weather conditions, pollution, transport of impurities.