The historical factors of the development of organic agriculture in the Baikal region are considered on the basis of eth-noecological experience of traditional agriculture management in the 18th–19th centuries. It is pointed out that the historical method of developing the territory of Transbaikalia is based on nomadic ethnic culture, self-consciousness of the Buryat ethnos, and on the stereotype of behavior in the natural environment and constitutes a unique historical experience of ad-aptation of the Buryats in the steppe and forest-steppe landscapes of Transbaikalia. And the preservation of nomadic traditions and the Buryat culture of economic managing deserve the attention of researchers. The historical-geographical approach makes it possible to demonstrate the adaptive character of nomad livestock breeding and the use of the territory of Transbaikalia region by the Buryat ethnos in the past, using a conditionally allocated cattle-breeding model as an example. It is shown that the livestock breeding (nomadic) model of agrarian nature management under consideration reflected a specific «strategy of adaptation» of traditional (nomadic) nature management to the natural environment of the region, which was at a certain socio-economic level of development and represented a natural model for the existence of the Buryat ethnos formed under the influence of the unique landscapes of Transbaikalia and historical traditions. The livestock breeding model of the economy in the past was the main system of using the territory of Transbaikalia by the Buryat population and reflected the dynamic stereotype of behavior in a given natural environment. The main features of nomadic livestock breeding are identified, which confirm that the livestock breeding model was an ecologically correct form of farming, and traditional agriculture is an alternative to intensive forms of agriculture, a kind of management with a focus on the manufacture of ecologically clean products of livestock breeding as well as being the prototype of organic agriculture in the Baikal region.Keywords: adaptive agriculture, ethnoecological experience, nomadic livestock breeding, sustainable agrarian nature management, ecologically correct model of nature management, culture of agrarian nature management.