This paper presents the results of a comparative spatial analysis of the regions of the Russian Federation in the context of the concept of a green economy with the use of two quantitative factors that characterize the well-being of the population: the payroll fund and the total wage fund and own revenues of the regional budgets per capita. The key environmental and economic indicators used in this study are the indicators of eco-intensity for regional economic systems. They show the particular negative impact on the environment “produced” by the regional economy per unit of economic result. The following characteristics of the region’s socio-ecological system are considered: the volume of atmospheric pollutant emissions in terms of 1000 rubles of the regional payroll fund and in terms of 1000 rubles of own income to regional budgets. The study revealed a high degree of heterogeneity of Russia’s regions in socio-environmental characteristics. It is shown that not only does the population of many natural resource and industrial regions live in conditions of increased anthropogenic pressure (both total and specific), but it also is not provided with additional resources of “collective well-being” through its own budget income, in spite of the unfavorable ecological and natural conditions. It is concluded that carbon regulation aimed at developing a low-carbon economy should not focus on identical quantitative indicators for the whole country.Keywords: ecointensity, social and environmental factors of well-being, ecological and economic zones, comparative spatial analysis, reduction of risk factors, carbon regulation.