Pskov oblast and Jewish Autonomous Oblast are used as an example to demonstrate changes in agriculture of the border areas of the Russian Federation. It is shown that between western and eastern regions there are differences in the development of agriculture that are caused not only by agro-climatic conditions but also by the socioeconomic situation. In Pskov oblast, considerable regional funds are invested in the development of large agricultural production, whereas less attention is given to farming than in Jewish Autonomous Oblast with a high proportion of farms that emerged in connection with disintegration of large agricultural enterprises. In Pskov oblast, agricultural enterprises were closed or joined agricultural holdings that work for Moscow or St. Petersburg. A decline in plant-growing implies a reduction in traditional crops (flax and grains). In Jewish Autonomous Oblast, agricultural organizations dispersed among private enterprises (farms and households), which is explained by the development of small-scale trade. An increase in soybean cultivation is due to its demand in the Russian and international sales markets. The two oblasts show a decrease in livestock population (especially horned cattle) as the cost of keeping is high. In Pskov oblast, most of the livestock are kept in agricultural organizations, whereas in Jewish Autonomous Oblast in private households. Cross-border cooperation of Pskov oblast and Jewish Autonomous Oblast also has some features in common. In the two oblasts, foreign investors invest in agriculture. In the former oblast, however, the projects envisage long-term cooperation that includes the development of rural areas located in the zone of influence of the programs; in the latter oblast, investments are for short-term periods with the purpose of obtaining profits from the territory, without any interest shown in its development.Keywords: border areas, profitability of animal husbandry and plant-growing, changes cultivated areas, commercial crops.