Investigations were made with a view to assess the geographical features in the formation of the chemical composition of surface waters of natural landscapes in Southern Yakutia. On the basis of studying the lithologo-geochemical and landscape-climatic characteristics of the region, we determined the specific character of the chemical composition of surface waters. It is established that the waters of the Lena-Aldan plateau refer to weakly alkaline, soft waters with moderate mineralization, and the waters of the Chul’manskaya hollow are categorized as neutral, very soft waters with very low mineralization. It is found that the intensity of water migration of most of the elements being studied (S, C, N, and others) increases with an increase of the degree of climate humidity, in dissection of relief and redox potential as well as with a decrease in acidity of the river waters in Southern Yakutia at the transition from the Lena-Aldan plateau to the Aldan highland and the Chul’manskaya hollow. It is determined that long-term changes in chemical composition of the waters of the Lena-Aldan plateau and the Aldan highland depend primarily on the natural conditions whereas in the Chul’manskaya hollow they are caused by the influence of the anthropogenic factor.Keywords: cryogenic landscapes, lithologo-geochemical and landscape-climatic features, water migration.