A water-soluble silver nanoparticles stabilized by a unique polymer matrix — available natural polymer melanin Inonotus obliquus was synthesized for the first time. The melanin is a multifunctional polymeric matrix whose inherent high electron-acceptor ability, presence of stable free radicals in high concentrations pronounced semiconducting properties, and others. A synthesis of nanoscale zero valent silver composite is the formation of colloidal silver metal particles from silver nitrate solution in the dispersion medium (aqueous alkaline solution of melanin). A sample of the nanocomposite was obtained as the form of a black-brown powder with a silver content of 5,4 %. The composite formation is self-organization of inorganic-organic polymer structures, including the regulation of hybrid fragments sizes on nanoscale level by specific adsorption of melanin on the surface of the growing inorganic nanoparticles. The bulk (as opposed to nucleus) melanin shell formed on particles prevents further aggregation of nanoparticles, while giving them water soluble properties. The redox reaction of melanin matrix with silver nitrate occurs in the nanocomposite formation. The silver nanoparticle dimensions comprise 8–24 nm, with a predominant content of nanoparticle sizes of 16–22 nm. The silver-melanin nanocomposite thus obtained from renewable raw materials is promising for use in biomedicine and materials science, as there may be synergies pronounced antimicrobial activity of nanosilver with a unique protective (not only absorb different radiations, but also neutralize and detoxify harmful to the cells free radicals formed by the action of ionizing radiation and certain chemicals on living organisms) and the powerful antioxidant properties of melanin. Wherein the prolonged action to be expected due to the presence of the natural polymer matrix.Keywords: melanin, Chaga mushroom, Inonotus obliquus, nanocomposite, silver nanoparticles, redox reaction.