We examine the scientific problem of studying the interrelationships of population distribution and dynamics and development of the human potential in Cisbaikalia in conditions of the central ecological zone of the Baikal natural territory. The interrelationships of territorial and functional development of local systems of population distribution are determined. Territorial tendencies and problems of population distribution and demographic development of Cisbaikalia are revealed by using a statistical and a cartographic method. The characteristics of the natural and migration movements of the population are compared in the spatiotemporal context. The population dynamics has been calculated displayed cartographically at the level of municipal formations for 2010–2016. The technique, developed by these authors, was used in calculating the Human Development Index both componentwise (education, health, and per capita income) and integrally. An assessment is made of the current human potential of municipal formations in Cisbaikalia as a crucial factor of territorial development. We determined the main tendencies and problems of changes in the demographic situation on the study territory which imply a decrease in the population size due to the migration outflow beyond the region, and to the gradual ageing of the population.Keywords: settlements, migration, demographic processes, human potential, municipal formations, Cisbaikalia.