The current structure of the types of forest exploitation is determined having regard to the natural and socioeconomic preconditions as well as highlighting the problems and prospects of their development. The most promising kinds of activity are identified in the sphere of harvesting food forest resources and their processing, recreation, hunting management and hunting and growing of planting material of forest plants. The study revealed the main problems in forest exploitation associated with the existence of definite natural conditions and resources as well as with the socioeconomic characteristics of territorial development, and with the requirements of normative-legal legislation on the protection of Lake Baikal. Emphasis is placed on a significant increase in areas of leased forest ranges (by a factor of 3.2), and in the number of contracts signed (by a factor of 1.3). The process of studying the problems used the method of statistical analysis, collected, summarized and interpreted information and generated the information base for the kinds of activity. The findings can be useful in developing programs of territorial planning, and normative-legal documents on governance of the kinds of forest management in the central ecological zone.Keywords: lands of forest reserves, lands of specially protected natural areas, kinds of activity in forests, forest users, forest ranges.