The central ecological zone of the Baikal natural territory includes Baikal with its islands, the water protection zone adjacent to the lake as well as specially protected natural areas. Ten specially protected natural areas are adjacent to Baikal’s shores: three zapovedniks, two national parks, and five zakazniks; therefore, environmental restrictions are imposed on the economic activities carried out there. In the central ecological zone, most of agricultural production is concentrated on the territory of the districts of Irkutsk oblast and the Republic of Buryatia. The leading sectors of agricultural activity are livestock husbandry, and the production of grain crops and vegetables. Plant-growing is mainly an auxiliary activity intended to meet the needs for forage reserves and internal consumption. Agricultural production in the study region is shown in the context of administrative districts (municipal formations) forming part of the central ecological zone; in Irkutsk oblast: the Irkutskii, Slyudyanskii and Ol’khonskii districts, and in the Republic of Buryatia: the Barguzinskii, Kabanskii, Severobaikal’skii and Pribaikal’skii districts. The territorial differentiation of agricultural development in the districts is considered, and the peculiarities of its sectoral structure are highlighted. An analysis is made of the structure of sown areas as well as of the gross harvest of grain and leguminous crops, potatoes and vegetables cultivated on open ground in enterprises of all categories for the time interval from 1990 to 2014. The characteristics of development of typical sectors of livestock husbandry for Irkutsk oblast and the Republic of Buryatia, such as cattle raising, sheep-breeding and horse-breeding.Keywords: Lake Baikal, agriculture, sown areas, gross harvest of agricultural crops, plant-growing, livestock husbandry.