Presented are the results from investigating the components of geosystems, such as the soil and vegetation, and their response to changes of climate on the southwestern shores of Baikal (settlement of Listvyanka and adjoining territories), the most well-developed part of the central ecological zone. A characteristic of the soils of this settlement and its surroundings is provided, the soil–plant relationship is investigated, and the response of the soil to temperature changes is revealed. As a result of using a set of methods (standard and contemporary), we obtained new evidence concerning the components of geosystems for the southwestern shores of Baikal under current climate change. It is found that the territory of the settlement and its surroundings are experiencing a strong anthropogenic impact, which manifests itself in a change in the internal connections of natural complexes and, as a consequence, in a transformation of the dominant stable mountain-taiga geosystems. The detected high concentrations of trace elements in the soil tend to occur in roadside ecosystems and the residential zone. It is revealed that the concentrations of the trace elements Ba, Mn, Cu, V and Cr in tissues of the plants used in the study are relatively high. Grasses are distinguished by the smallest number of elements (Mn, Cu and V) which have maximally high values. The coefficient of biological absorption higher than 1 was observed in Ba, Mn and Cu. It is determined that the anomalous air temperatures in 2014–2015 had influence on soil temperature, cumulative active temperatures, and on the amplitude between winter and summer temperatures at a depth of 20 cm on different-aspect slopes. It is found that the northeastern slope is colder, is warmed at a later date in the springtime and has a longer period of subzero temperatures. It is revealed that the climatic anomalies in recent years implied a rise in winter temperatures of the soil, and an extension of the summer maxima, which was reflected in an increase of the time of the growing period, and the rate and length of ice setting on Baikal.Keywords: geosystem, soil, coefficient of biological absorption, soil temperature, changes of climate.