Академическое издательство «Гео»

Keywords: climatic changes, sea level fluctuations, tsunami, pyrogenic factor, radiocarbon dating, Sikhote-Alin’.



GEOGRAPHY AND NATURAL RESOURCES, 2016, № 3, p. 141-151

Landscapes changes along the coast and inthe mountains surrounding Kit Bay (Primorie) during the Middle and Late Holocene

N.G. Razzhigaeva*, L.A. Ganzei*, T.A. Grebennikova*, L.M. Mokhova*, E.P. Kudryavtseva*, Kh.A. Arslanov**, F.E. Maksimov**, and A.A. Starikova**

*nadyar@tig.dvo.ru, nadyar@tig.dvo.ru, nadyar@tig.dvo.ru, ludmila-mokhova@list.ru, katya@tig.dvo.ru,
**arslanovkh@mail.ru, maksimov-fedor@yandex.ru, tournament@chem.spbu.ru

We determined the development stages of the landscapes along the coast and in the mountains surrounding Kit Bay in the course of climatic changes and the associated fluctuations of the sea level during the Middle and Late Holocene which have been superimposed over the last 3.5–3.2 14C ka by the pyrogenic factor that has manifested itself especially strongly during the last millennium when secondary forests were of widespread occurrence in the low mountains. The rise of the sea level during the maximum phase of Holocene transgression led to formation of mouth lagoons which have gone through a complicated stage of development. The main topographic features of the coast began to form at that time thus laying a foundation for the present-day landscapes of the coastal lowlands. We identified vegetation changes in the course of differently directed short-period climate fluctuations. It was found that Korean pine became an element of forest vegetation in the mountains surrounding Kit Bay much earlier than in the other areas of Eastern Primorie. Its spread was favored by the proximity to the heavily dissected spurs of Sikhote-Alin’ where refugia might persist. The warm phases were accompanied by the involvement of broad-leaved species; the role of Korean pine was increasing during cooling periods, and dark-coniferous (especially spruce) forests came to be of wide-spread occurrence in the mid-mountain during the Subatlantic. Large forests occurred around the sphagnum bog during the Subatlantic. The favorable conditions for the growth of this forest type occurred during a short-lasting cooling period in the Mid-Atlantic when seasonally frozen ground could exist on the sphagnum bog for most of a year. The extreme events influencing the development of coastal landscapes include floods whose occurrence frequency has increased over the last 2 ka. Severe floods give rise to a thick layer of loams on low topographic features in the estuarine zones. Strong tsunamis also influenced the development of coastal landscapes. Changes in landscape development have been detected, which are associated with anthropogenic activity over the last several decades.

Keywords: climatic changes, sea level fluctuations, tsunami, pyrogenic factor, radiocarbon dating, Sikhote-Alin’.

DOI: 10.21782/GiPR0206-1619-2016-3(141-151)

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