Академическое издательство «Гео»

Keywords: geomorphological security of territory, disastrous geomorphological events, deflation, soil erosion, gullying, mud streams.



GEOGRAPHY AND NATURAL RESOURCES, 2016, № 3, p. 118-129

Extreme phases of denudation and questionsof geomorphological security of the Upper Angara region

O.I. Bazhenova*, E.M. Tyumentseva**, and S.A. Tukhta*

*bazhenova@irigs.irk.ru, varitan@yandex.ru
**tumencev@irk.ru

An analysis is made of the manifestations of fluvial and aeolian processes in the southern, developed areas of Irkutsk oblast belonging to the upstream part of the Angara basin. We examine the formation probability and the recurrence frequency of disastrous geomorphological events. The study revealed their association with positive (fluvial processes) and negative (aeolian processes) extremes and anomalies of atmospheric moistening. It is shown that at the time of an extreme event the rate of the processes and the volumes of transported material increase abruptly (by an order of magnitude), and the affected areas show an increase. The criteria for an extreme fluvial event can be represented by a spasmodic buildup of gullies and appearance of new gullies, an abrupt increase in soil losses due to erosion of agricultural lands reaching 100–200 m3/ha, death of crops, releases of mud streams, and destruction of roads, dams, bridges and other structures. The geomorphological consequences of the 1960 summer storm rains are considered to exemplify the disastrous fluvial events. The extremes of aeolian processes have the character of hurricanes encompassing most of the agricultural areas of Irkutsk oblast. The hurricanes are accompanied by a powerful removal of aeolian material from north-west to south-east to the water area of Baikal, to windward slopes and watershed divides of the mountain ranges along the eastern coast. The finest dust particles are transported to neighboring areas of Buryatia, Mongolia and China. The negative consequences of extreme aeolian events include agricultural crop destruction or damage, soil deflation, pollution of surface waters by deflation products, fires, damage to power transmission lines or even death of people. The findings were used in zoning the Upper Angara region according to the degree of geomorphological security of the territory.

Keywords: geomorphological security of territory, disastrous geomorphological events, deflation, soil erosion, gullying, mud streams.

DOI: 10.21782/GiPR0206-1619-2016-3(118-129)

главная

www.izdatgeo.ru