Академическое издательство «Гео»

Keywords: water-intensive production facilities, spatiotemporal dynamics, water consumption pattern, sewage disposal, forecast, disproportions.



GEOGRAPHY AND NATURAL RESOURCES, 2016, № 2, p. 27-35

Water use in the transboundary basin of the Amur river

L.V. Gorbatenko

glv@tig.dvo.ru

This paper summarizes the problems and consequences associated with water use in the Russian and Chinese parts of the Amur river basin. Taking into consideration the set of indicators involving the water withdrawal, the utilization of source water, the volumes of recirculated and repeated-consecutive water supply, the volumes of waste waters, the capacity of pollution control facilities, etc., an outline is given of the present status of water use in the national parts of the basin. The future amounts of water consumption are forecasted, and it is shown how it will increase in the Russian as well as the Chinese parts. An analysis of the spatiotemporal dynamics of water-use indicators revealed the differently directed tendencies in the water-use pattern in the Russian and Chinese parts of the Amur river basin, and the existence of quantitative disproportions caused by a different degree of development and a different intensity of economic growth. In the Russian part of the basin, the amounts of water used have stabilized in recent years after a decrease, whereas they are increasing steadily in the Chinese and Russian parts where the highest proportion of water is used to meet agricultural and production needs, respectively. It is shown that water use, the density of the water-economy structure and the discharges of pollutants in the Chinese part of the basin are larger by factors of several tens than those in the Russian part. The manufacture of water-intensive industrial products and the load of agriculture on water resources also differ by factors of several tens. The indicator of population size is used to characterize the degree of development of the basin’s territory. For the Russian part of the basin the study revealed a dependence of water consumption on the population size and on the volumes of water-intensive products of the production facilities with a low coefficient of recirculated water use. This dependence can also be extended to the Chinese part where circulated water supplies are being used only moderately.

Keywords: water-intensive production facilities, spatiotemporal dynamics, water consumption pattern, sewage disposal, forecast, disproportions.
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