We examine the infrastructure complexes of the Russian-Mongolian transboundary territory. A study is made of the characteristic features and the conditions for the functioning and development of these complexes. It is stated that these systems can become a connecting link between the two countries, because the Russian and Mongolian infrastructures as the components of the national economy had been forming in a concerted manner prior to the 1990s. It is established that the ideological-functional proximity, conditioned by the historical-ethnical features of the development of the two countries, the similarity of the main evolutionary stages, technological solutions of virtually the same type, and the similar natural-climatic conditions for construction and operation activities provide great scope for the typologization of the main infrastructural facilities of Russia and Mongolia. Data are obtained on the basis of comparable quantitative indicators, which serve as the basis for zoning the territory from the level of infrastructural development with consideration for the factors of natural environment. A rationale is provided for the need to implement special measures and pursue a relevant regional policy in order to achieve an equitable financial-economic balance of the relations between core regions and peripheral regions, and to mediate the influence of a severe climate on the effectiveness of the Russian economy. The findings have been used in identifying economically favorable territories with a high potential of priority development. Material has been accumulated to generate the “Infrastructure of the Russian-Mongolian transboundary territory” GIS system.Keywords: infrastructure, cross-border territories, Russian-Mongolian transboundary territory, mechanisms of regional development, spatial integration processes.