The medium-scale map of Amur oblast, compiled by this author, was used in calculating the indicators of landscape diversity: species landscape diversity, mosaic pattern, and rarity/typicality. The most significant factors responsible for landscape diversity of Amur oblast are identified, namely: a large number of natural boundaries of the highest hierarchical rank, the altitude-belt specificity of the landscape structure, its rearrangement under the effect of endogenous and exogenous processes, and characteristic features of anthropogenic impact. A total of 20 geosystems were identified on the territory of Amur oblast, and four of them are classed as rare geosystems with high biodiversity parameters. At present the most developed area is the southern part of the region occupied largely by the Zeya-Bureya Plain, about 75 % of the territory of which has been transformed to agrolandscapes, and 15 % to residential territories, transport routes and lands disturbed by mining industries. The percentage of forest land of some landscapes of the plain has decreased from 15–20 to 1–2 % and continues to steadily decline. A currently important challenge implies preserving not only rare stows but also “islands” of typical landscapes and, primarily, the forest massifs on the territory of the Tambovskii, Konstantinovskii, Ivanovskii, Belogorskii and Mikhailovskii districts.Keywords: geosystems, species landscape diversity, mosaic pattern, rarity/typicality, degree of territorial development, comparative analysis.