We examine the natural-environment development dynamics within the Amur basin during the Neoglacial. The study revealed the opposing directedness in climate humidity changes for different parts of the basin. In the maritime and inland parts, a cooling was accompanied by an increase and decrease in humidity, respectively. It is established that a cooling in the maritime part of the basin led to a shift of the boundaries of vegetation zones, an enhancement in watering of bog systems, and to a change of biogeocenoses. In the inland part of the basin, an enhancement in aridization was conducive to a retrogression of the lakes’ level, and to an intensification of aeolian processes.Keywords: Neoglacial, spore and pollen spectra, complexes of diatoms, radiocarbon dating, Amur basin.