Long-term inventory, archival and published data were used to characterize biodiversity of the fauna of the Large Vasyuganskoye Bog in connection with its landscape-ecological properties. An assessment is made of the role of this territory in the preservation of populations of protected animal species and unique communities. The study ascertained a large biodiversity of ornithocomplexes, and the environmental factors determining it. Characteristics of population of terrestrial vertebrate species are given. We substantiate the expediency of the establishment of the integral (landscape) state game-reserve of regional significance «Vasyugansky» and the necessity of granting it a higher nature conservation status.Keywords: fauna, Large Vasyuganskoye Bog, populations of protected species, unique communities, landscape-ecological properties.