We examine the problems of sustainable development of Siberia’s oil and gas complex. A comparative analysis is made of the socio-economic and ecological indices for Western and Eastern Siberia. Attention is focused on the issues involving the creation of the necessary preconditions for regional development in the case of exhaustion of the oil and gas resources. The main factors of sustainable development operating at different hierarchical levels are considered. The distinguishing features of the creation of the oil and gas complex and the oil and gas complex in the Irkutsk region are shown.Keywords: oil and gas complex, Siberia, sustainable development, hierarchical levels.